top of page

The EngliPro Blog

Blogs in easy English on a broad range of subjects to help you practice reading. Each post has a list of important vocabulary and practice questions. 

Maritime Security and Freedom of Navigation: Challenges and Importance of Securing International Sea Lanes

Updated: Mar 11

Maritime security is a critical aspect of global stability and economic prosperity. The oceans, covering more than 70% of the Earth's surface, are key to international trade, with over 90% of the world's goods being transported by sea. The concept of freedom of navigation, the principle that ships flying the flag of any sovereign state shall not suffer interference from other states, except under internationally agreed upon exceptions, is foundational to this global system. However, challenges such as piracy, territorial disputes, and unlawful maritime claims threaten the safety and openness of international sea lanes, requiring joint efforts to uphold maritime security and freedom of navigation.

Securing Sea Lanes Against Modern Piracy

Modern piracy remains a significant threat to maritime security, particularly in strategic chokepoints like the Strait of Malacca, the Gulf of Aden, and the Gulf of Guinea. Efforts to combat piracy necessitate international cooperation and the deployment of naval assets to deter, prevent, and respond to pirate attacks. Initiatives such as the Djibouti Code of Conduct have been pivotal in enhancing regional maritime security through information sharing, legal and infrastructure development, and capacity building.

Addressing Territorial Disputes and Unlawful Maritime Claims

Territorial disputes, especially in the South China Sea and the East China Sea, pose serious challenges to maritime security and freedom of navigation. The unilateral imposition of navigation restrictions and the militarization of disputed features threaten the principle of free passage in international waters. Upholding international law, particularly the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), is essential for resolving disputes peacefully and ensuring the seas remain open to all.

The Role of International Organizations and Agreements

International organizations like the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and agreements such as UNCLOS play a crucial role in maintaining maritime security and ensuring freedom of navigation. They provide frameworks for cooperation, set standards for maritime conduct, and offer dispute resolution mechanisms. Engagement with these organizations and adherence to their conventions are vital for states to navigate the complex maritime security environment.

Maritime Security in Practice: Freedom of Navigation Operations

Freedom of navigation operations (FONOPs) are conducted by various states to challenge excessive maritime claims and assert the right of ships to pass through international waters without interference. These operations, while controversial, highlight the importance of maintaining open sea lanes and upholding international law.

The Importance of Maritime Security

Maritime security is not just about countering threats but also about ensuring the sustainable use of ocean resources, protecting marine environments, and supporting the global economy. As maritime trade continues to grow, the security of sea lanes remains a fundamental concern for all nations. International collaboration, adherence to the rule of law, and continued vigilance are essential to safeguard the maritime domain for future generations.

Important vocabulary from the post:

Maritime Security: The protection of the international maritime domain from threats that may compromise national security, economic prosperity, and global stability.

Freedom of Navigation: The principle that ships flying the flag of any sovereign state shall not suffer interference from other states, except under internationally agreed upon exceptions.

Piracy: Acts of robbery and criminal violence at sea.

Territorial Disputes: Disagreements over the ownership or control of land between two or more states or over the demarcation of maritime boundaries.

UNCLOS: The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, an international agreement that defines the rights and responsibilities of nations with respect to their use of the world's oceans.

FONOPs: Freedom of Navigation Operations, actions by military vessels to assert navigational rights in disputed waters.

Djibouti Code of Conduct: An agreement aimed at repressing piracy and armed robbery against ships in the western Indian Ocean and the Gulf of Aden.

Practice Questions (Answers Below):

  1. What is the primary reason international sea lanes need to be secured?

    1. To increase military presence

    2. To ensure global economic stability and safe passage of goods

    3. To expand territorial waters

    4. To reduce the volume of international trade

  2. Which of the following is a significant threat to maritime security?

    1. Increased shipping speeds

    2. Modern piracy and unlawful maritime claims

    3. Overfishing

    4. Sea level rise

  3. Why are territorial disputes in the South China Sea a concern for maritime security?

    1. They limit the scope of naval exercises

    2. They threaten freedom of navigation and overflight

    3. They enhance regional cooperation

    4. They encourage piracy

  4. What role does the International Maritime Organization play in maritime security?

    1. Regulating global shipping rates

    2. Providing private security to ships

    3. Setting standards for maritime safety and environmental protection

    4. Conducting naval patrols

  5. Why are Freedom of Navigation Operations conducted?

    1. To escalate territorial disputes

    2. To challenge unlawful maritime claims and assert navigation rights

    3. To enforce fishing quotas

    4. To map new shipping routes


  1. B

  2. B

  3. B

  4. C

  5. B

Link to Youtube Video:


  1. **Maritime Security Division (MSD) - U.S. Department of State

  2. "U.S. Navy Destroyer Conducts Freedom of Navigation Operation in the South China Sea" - U.S. Pacific Fleet

  3. Red Sea Area - International Maritime Organization (IMO)

  4. "Philippines" - U.S. Department of State



bottom of page